Python Control Example

Python Threading Example. Grayson #ISBN: 1884777813 #Publisher: Manning #*/ from Tkinter import * SQUARE = 1 ROUND = 2 ARROW = 3 POINT. If you need further help take a look at the API reference docs for more details. Unfortunately, this is an ordinary exception, and is, like all other exceptions, caught by a "catch-all" try-except statement. Includes examples of linear and logarithmic axes, axes titles, styling and coloring axes and grid lines, and more. Here are links to the Python code discussed in lecture. This page demonstrates the use of the python-control package for analysis and design of a controller for a vectored thrust aircraft model that is used as a running example through the text Feedback Systems by Astrom and Murray. In most other programming languages, indentation is used only to help make the code look pretty. py James Tam The For Loop Typically used when it is known in advance how many times that the loop will execute (counting loops). If your app has largely independent pieces that only share things like models and configuration, divisional might be the way to go. This example has a bit more code to explain, but it isn’t that much more complicated than the first threading example, thanks to the use of the queuing module. The below table contains a list of Python Escape sequence characters and relevant examples. This guide discusses how to install packages using pip and a virtual environment manager: either venv for Python 3 or virtualenv for Python 2. In this lesson, we learn how to form and use these. How and when do I use for loops under Python programming language? A for loop is a Python statement which repeats a group of statements a specified number of times. The syntax for a nested while loop statement in Python programming language is as follows: while expression: while expression: statement(s) statement(s) A final note on loop nesting is that we can put any type of loop inside of any other type of loop. The Python Control Systems Library is a Python module that implements basic operations for analysis and design of feedback control systems. isfile method. python-lirc is a Python extension that allows us to access configs in ~/. Browse and download code samples from VMware as well as code samples contributed by the VMware community. The initial goal is to implement all of the functionality required to work through the examples in the textbook Feedback Systems by Astrom and Murray. Currently supported WebDriver implementations are. Python Logging Tutorial With Example. In this example, we will save. To do so, we would pass our data to Python for calculations and would be fetching the calculated output out of Python into T-SQL. String is a sequence of characters that exist as an object of the class. python-osc is a pure python library that has no external dependencies, to install it just use pip (prefered): $ pip install python-osc or from the raw sources for the development version: $ python setup. Log in to Sample Exchange using your MyVMware credentials to submit requests for new samples, contribute your own samples, as well as propose a sample as a solution for open requests. exe wherever a case-insensitive filesystem is used (e. Tkinter package is shipped with Python as a standard package, so we don't need to install anything to use it. Goldberg 10 awesome features of Python that you can't use because you refuse to upgrade to Python 3 by A. They are extracted from open source Python projects. An example of string to integer for leap years. Supposing you have a List Control, and you want to set some items to, say, bold. Install IPython (or you can use any other python shell, but a unicode supported shell is preferred) Install python-control (numpy, scipy) Install sympy. For example, you want to print a message on the screen only when a condition is true then you can use if statement to accomplish this in programming. GPIB, RS232, USB, Ethernet). We use a for loop to work on the list, , check whether the filepath is a normal file or directory using the os. The control flow of a Python program is regulated by conditional statements, loops, and function calls. Linear input/output systems in state-space and frequency domain; Block diagram algebra: serial, parallel, and feedback interconnections. We’ll also sort according to Python functions, Vector functions, and Vector features. Pexpect makes Python a better tool for controlling other applications. The NI-DAQmx driver can be downloaded from the NI website, and then the NI-DAQmx Python Documentation explains how to install the Python support. February 17, 2003 | Fredrik Lundh. After running given command or binary some output may be created. Today, we're going to cover quite a bit, as we learn the essentials. zip An Introduction to Python for Control, System Dynamics, and Mechatronics These are some Python files I put together to help my mechatronics students use Python for modeling dynamic systems. This a basic example of pulling a waveform from channel 1, converting it to volts, then plotting it, in python. These include Python if, else, elif, and nested-if statements. We can make the computer speak with Python. First we need to add more configurations to our ~/. The Python programming examples also contains programs on Strings. Windows Forms. I'm not that advanced to understand what this is or what you can even do with it. Programming GPIO example Now that you hopefully have the required supplies (Raspberry Pi, male-female jumper wires, bread-board, resistor and LED light), you're ready to tackle a basic example of using GPIO (General Purpose Input Output). The FactInternetSales table contains more than 60k records related to sales data. In addition, it demonstrates usage of dependency injection framework, IoC container and such popular design pattern as Factory. 2 (8,116 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. If you are interested in my Python for Network Engineers courses or in learning more about using Python for network automation—sign up for my email-list. Here are links to the Python code discussed in lecture. The 5 Best Python IDE's and Code Editors for 2019,Python Syntax Basics,Hello Developers. Users could install RSeQC using pip: pip install RSeQC. This is a super primative way to do things, and not recommended if you can avoid it. dictionary’s. There are three control flow statements in Python - if, for and while. Tkinter package is a very powerful package. September 15, 2010 Python, wxPython GUI, Python, wxPython Mike The other day, I received a complaint that my original notebook example in my Book control series was too complicated. Data Science from Scratch: First Principles with Python [Joel Grus] on Amazon. They allow us to make decisions in python so that we can choose a set of statements to execute. The documentation for the nidaqmx Python package is hosted on the NI Github Sit. Python Programming Language is a high-level and interpreted programming language which was created by Guido Van Rossum in 1989. Python Example This is a python example that enables you to control the FieldFox family of Combination Analyzers to import SA data as ASCII. The output from all the example programs from PyMOTW has been generated with Python 2. fab deploy;. var: var reads each element. Machine Learning Section. They treat the / operation with integers like the current Python //, so the result of the expression above is 0, since 1//2 is 0. Python is strongly object-oriented in the sense that everything is an object including numbers, strings and functions. - Imports the pyvisa libraries and operating system dependent functionality;. These are the lowest-level tools for managing Python packages and are recommended if higher-level tools do not suit your needs. py PCA9685 registers. Each example should work by running 'ipython -pylab' and then running the given file (make sure to have the python-control module in your path). I'm not that advanced to understand what this is or what you can even do with it. No Python background is required. To create a Python file in Thonny, click File > New and you'll be given a window. In this tutorial, we will learn how to develop graphical user interfaces by writing some Python GUI examples using Tkinter package. The recursive Python function print_movie_files takes two arguments: the directory path to search. GPIB, RS232, USB, Ethernet). Down key has been hit 4 times to center play area in browser. Python RegEx Tutorial With Example | Regular Expressions in Python is today's topic. Guido Van Rossum is known as the founder of Python programming. Student Robotics robots are all programmed in Python 2. Lines 30 and 32, shouldn't it be: ui = ui_prev + 1. for Statements¶. In this section, you will learn about decisions (selection) and repetition. Python Fundamentals gets you started with Python, a dynamic language popular for web development, big data, science, and scripting. example in listing 2, return value of malloc was not checked. Functions enhances the reusability of the code. Python Wrappers around Web Browser "Test Suite" Libraries. Python Central is a one-stop resource for Python programmers. It basically works like this: You enter a position in python. Assign list to a document property Disclaimer: The script code in these articles is only a sample to be used as a reference. Related Course: Zero to Deep Learning with Python and Keras. VMware Sample Exchange. MATLAB compatibility module¶. Python Hangman Game Python Command Line IMDB Scraper Python code examples Here we link to other sites that provides Python code examples. Python Variable Example num = 100 str = "BeginnersBook" print(num) print(str) Output: Python multiple assignment. Each element prints in the single line which means the single element in the single line. Control flow refers to the order in which the program should be executed. It's easy to control PWM or servos with the Adafruit 16-channel PWM/Servo HAT and Bonnet. This page demonstrates the use of the python-control package for analysis and design of a controller for a vectored thrust aircraft model that is used as a running example through the text Feedback Systems by Astrom and Murray. Windows Forms for. items() method. 7) Look for logical vulnerabilities in code snippets. 0 etc) to force floating point division!. A script: directive must be a python import path, for example, package. Here in this blog post Coding compiler sharing Python 3 programming control flow statements tutorial for beginners. String is a sequence of characters that exist as an object of the class. 0 / Ti * h * e and ud = 1. The python-control package is a set of python classes and functions that implement common operations for the analysis and design of feedback control systems. This section covers the if statement and for and while loops; functions are covered later in this chapter. By default, this output is printed to the stdout which is a Python shell for our examples. See this for an example where while loop is used for iterators. For example, following code inside the while loop will be never executed because the initial test will return FALSE. txt' Writing all these backslashes can become tedious, so in most cases, you can use a shorthand provided by Python. Rather than always iterating over an arithmetic progression of numbers (like in Pascal), or giving the user the ability to define both the iteration step and halting condition (as C), Python's for statement iterates over the items of any sequence (a list or a string), in the order. This Python tutorial is for absolute beginners who are looking for learning Python programming. Another is by using the paramiko module which implements the SSH protocols directly in Python. The two blocks of code in our example if-statement are both indented four spaces, which is a typical amount of indentation for Python. The Extron Control System Programming Using Python reference guide is available to certified Extron Authorized Programmers, and provides an in-depth look at using the Python programming language and ControlScript library with Pro Series control systems. The SDK documentation (Waveforms SDK Reference Manual. NET, JavaScript, and C++. k-means object clustering. Python is so easy to pick up) and want to start making games beyond just text, then this is the book for you. After entering the value, the program tells if the entered year is a leap year or not. Web Framework. SciPy (pronounced “Sigh Pie”) is a Python-based ecosystem of open-source software for mathematics, science, and engineering. Features: Board number manually through a DIP Switch placed near RS485 connector. If you are new to Python 10 Basic Python Examples That Will Help You Learn Fast 10 Basic Python Examples That Will Help You Learn Fast This article of basic python examples is for those who already have some programming experience and simply want to transition to Python as quickly as possible. py test $ python setup. This needs to be done manually). It is located in the PyPi. In the first example, 35 and 6 are interpreted as integer numbers, so integer division is used and the result is an integer. To do so, we would pass our data to Python for calculations and would be fetching the calculated output out of Python into T-SQL. Python loop examples based on their control: Here, we are writing examples of Range Controlled loop, Collection Controlled, Condition Controlled Loop. For Python scripts, use: 'python scriptName. Python is a great general-purpose programming language on its own, but with the help of a few popular libraries (numpy, scipy, matplotlib) it becomes a powerful environment for scientific computing. In just three lines of code, you can get an LED. Python print command operators The print statement is useful for joining multiple words, strings, num bers with different data types as well. Learn the basics of Python, including data types, functions, and control flow, and decide if it’s the right language for your projects. In this tutorial, we will learn how to develop graphical user interfaces by writing some Python GUI examples using Tkinter package. The King of Growth,Working with the Python Super Function,Python Cheat Sheets,Beautiful Soup 4 Python,Web Scraping with BeautifulSoup,Python - Quick Guide,The del Statement,__str__ vs. Python and Concurrency •How GIL works ? –It controls the transfer of control between threads. Any feedback is highly welcome. Hello, I need to control several PXI devices (basically DC sources and DMM) via Python but I'm unsure about what the sanest approach could be. Our mission is to put the power of computing and digital making into the hands of people all over the world. You have to module the standard python module threading if you are going to use thread in your python code. Rather than always iterating over an arithmetic progression of numbers (like in Pascal), or giving the user the ability to define both the iteration step and halting condition (as C), Python's for statement iterates over the items of any sequence (a list or a string), in the order. It was first released in 1991, which results in a great general purpose language capable of creating anything from desktop software to web applications and frameworks. This is often the first thing a Python 2 developer will discover about Python 3. import serial We then attempt to connect to our arduino on /dev/ttyUSB0, using try and except to catch an exception if we are unable to find the arduino on USB0. Python Logic Programming With Example A major part of programming AI is understanding and inputting logic, and this tutorial gives some examples of doing just that in Python. In the first example, 35 and 6 are interpreted as integer numbers, so integer division is used and the result is an integer. Cisco DevNet: APIs, SDKs, Sandbox, and Community for Cisco. So: In Python 3 programs, use those parentheses. In this quickstart, you run two sample Python applications. For Python scripts, use: 'python scriptName. Then you can explore the results in many ways in Tableau. First we need to make sure the environment is setup. I'm a fan of Python and open source stuff so here's a simple article on how to do some common control systems stuff in Python. Chapter 2: Control Videos. That means, while loop tells the computer to do something as long as the condition is met. But that's a topic for. x as well: Formatted Output in Python 2. connector cnx = mysql. Python provides us with 3 types of Control Statements: Continue; Break; Pass #1) Continue Statement:. Get started with Python quickly, build two complete apps, and learn how to use Python in a real Linux server environment 4. Install IPython (or you can use any other python shell, but a unicode supported shell is preferred) Install python-control (numpy, scipy) Install sympy. In addition to these library-oriented use cases, Fabric makes it easy to integrate with Invoke’s command-line task functionality, invoking via a fab binary stub: Python functions, methods or entire objects can be used as CLI-addressable tasks, e. To use pyttsx3, first we have to download and install it. Python Control Systems Library 0. As some users commented below the raw_input() function has been removed so you should just use the new Python 3 function input(). This process is called Text To Speech (TTS). When execution leaves a scope, all automatic objects that were created in that scope are destroyed. 8, unless otherwise noted. " From IronPython. The LabVIEW code is called in Python and the front panel is controlled using ActiveX calls from Python. The Raspberry Pi comes with Python libraries for controlling GPIO. Python Control Systems Library¶ The Python Control Systems Library (python-control) is a Python package that implements basic operations for analysis and design of feedback control systems. isalpha(), len() and. IronSpread is a perfect example of why you should, if you have the desire. • Python determines the type of the reference automatically based on the data object assigned to it. Find file Copy path Fetching contributors… Cannot retrieve contributors at this time. This is a 2D rectangle fitting for vehicle detection. Below examples shows on how to join multiple strings to form a single sentence. Model: R4S8CRMB Specifications: Relays have Normally Open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC). Simultaneous Localization and Mapping(SLAM. As a real-world example, recently I have been working with gigabytes of CSV files that I have been converting using a Python script to a file that contains SQL commands to insert the information. Unofficial Windows Binaries for Python Extension Packages. Control flow refers to the order in which the program should be executed. Although logging is essential, not all developers know how to use them correctly. Should you require a time-sensitive answer, please contact your local Tektronix support center here. we saw many Python GUI examples using the Tkinter library and we saw how easy it's to develop. This module contains a number of functions that emulate some of the functionality of MATLAB. This is a data-oriented approach to Python. ino to Arduino. py” that does not return results if input file containing less than 1000 reads. Now available for Python 3!. Python is an interpreted scripting language also. Leverage the power of Python in Tableau with TabPy. Over two days, instructors teach our three core topics: the Unix shell, version control with Git, and a programming language (Python or R). " From IronPython. This tutorial will discuss the break, continue and pass statements available in Python. k-means object clustering. Python Control Statements Control statements in Python help to control the flow of execution of a program. 3 Fix a bug in “read_quality. What You Will Learn: You will construct a basic electrical circuit and attach it to your RPi GPIO pins; You will write a simple Python program to control the circuit using IDLE IDE; What You Will Need:. Windows Forms is the most common GUI toolkit for the. On that page, you can automatically populate the APIs Explorer widget with sample parameter and property values for any use case and open the fullscreen APIs Explorer to see code samples for Python and several other languages. If you would like to contribute to this documentation, you can fork this project in Github and send pull requests. In LabVIEW you can use the System Exec. For Python training, our top recommendation is DataCamp. As mentioned. Meet Python. matplotlib. Python, like many other computer programming languages, uses Boolean logic for its decision control. yhat blog - statistical quality control in r Quality Control and quality assurance are important functions in most businesses from manufacturing to software development. If you are looking for examples that work under Python 3, please refer to the PyMOTW-3 section of the site. Python For Loops. This lighthearted guide to the ten astonishments in version control history is a fun way to learn how systems developed over the past several decades. The Python Tutorial is an optional part of 6. What we plan to do is safely connect one or two motors to the Raspberry Pi with as few components as possible. In this tutorial, you have learned how to insert one or more rows into a table in Python. Caution: This is not the case in other common languages like Java and C++ (or with Python 2). See this for an example where while loop is used for iterators. NOTE for Python 3 users: The code above has been written for Python 2 and I'm no more able to test RS232 connections with Python 3. You can also practice a good number of questions from practice section. When execution leaves a scope, all automatic objects that were created in that scope are destroyed. By comparison an array is an ordered collection of items of a single type - so in principle a list is more flexible than an array but it is this flexibility that makes things slightly harder when you want to work with a regular structure. GPIB, RS232, USB, Ethernet). pi('dick') # pi3 accesses dick's GPIO. All video and text tutorials are free. In addition, it demonstrates usage of dependency injection framework, IoC container and such popular design pattern as Factory. More control flow tools in Python 3 Python is a programming language that lets you work quickly and integrate systems more effectively. Problems in linear programming, quadratic programming, integer programming, nonlinear optimization, systems of dynamic nonlinear equations, and multiobjective optimization can be solved. setup(4, GPIO. Our mission is to put the power of computing and digital making into the hands of people all over the world. python-lirc is a Python extension that allows us to access configs in ~/. LimeSurvey RemoteControl 2 is a XML-RPC/JSON-RPC based web service available in LimeSurvey 2. They allow us to make decisions in python so that we can choose a set of statements to execute. Python MySQL Example - Drop Table Sometimes you may need to drop any table before creating any new table so that name collision does not take place. An additional incentive payment of $50 for each python measuring up to 4 feet plus an extra $25 for each foot measured above 4 feet. Python : from flask import Flask, request,. When you create a queue in python you can think it as of Lists that can grow and Shrink. If you are new to Python 10 Basic Python Examples That Will Help You Learn Fast 10 Basic Python Examples That Will Help You Learn Fast This article of basic python examples is for those who already have some programming experience and simply want to transition to Python as quickly as possible. These statements are the heart of Python programming, and allow you to create programs that do different things depending on input and conditions. Of course, this brought me face to face once again with Python's pons asinorum, the significance of whitespace. Python 3 does what you would expect mathematically with an expression like (1/2)*6. Control objects. See also Documentation Releases by Version. keys() method. Python and Cython language bundles. TIMESTAMP_LTZ), and therefore the data type must be specified as shown. Part 2 - Control Structures in Python. For example, our hyper-converged infrastructure solutions powered by VMware vSAN can cut total cost of ownership by 50% or more while helping 75% of our customers achieve equal or higher performance than their existing storage solutions. For example, the code below prints "1 1 2 1 1 2". In addition, it demonstrates usage of dependency injection framework, IoC container and such popular design pattern as Factory. The initial goal is to implement all of the functionality required to work through the examples in the textbook Feedback Systems by Åström and Murray. This article is for our sponsors at CodeProject. Not only can this documentation be used for his library, but it provides many excellent examples of how to use MicroPython itself. lircrc: begin prog = irexec button = KEY_1 config = echo "You pressed one" repeat = 0 end begin prog = myprogram button = KEY_1 config = one end begin prog = myprogram button = KEY_1. Dimensions: KMTronic_8Relay_Dimension. In LabVIEW you can use the System Exec. Plotly OEM Pricing Enterprise Pricing About Us Careers Resources Blog Support Community Support Documentation JOIN OUR MAILING LIST Sign up to stay in the loop with all things Plotly — from Dash Club to product updates, webinars, and more! Subscribe. So in this Python Queue Example, we will learn about implementation of FIFO queue in python using lists and also learn about Deque (Double-ended queue) and priority queue. XlsxWriter is a Python module that can be used to write text, numbers, formulas and hyperlinks to multiple worksheets in an Excel 2007+ XLSX file. Python provides us with 3 types of Control Statements: Continue; Break; Pass #1) Continue Statement:. Reading and writing from GPIO ports from Python how to read from a physical push-button from Python code, and control an LED. Python tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of Python. % python filename. Back to Top. PyVISA example of instrument control via Python and NI-VISA Last Updated: Jan 13, 2016 03:01PM PST Python is a popular free programming environment that has the advantage of a large degree of user development and loads of powerful functionality. We can make the computer speak with Python. Now that you’ve figured out a regular VCS, try an illustrated guide to distributed version control. 1 Connecting to MySQL Using Connector/Python. Basic Data Types: Hello, World! Control Construct Basics: If. You should be familiar with the basics of programming before starting 6. Selection Control Structures Kenneth Leroy Busbee and Dave Braunschweig. The Raspberry Pi comes with Python libraries for controlling GPIO. Meet Python. You can mostly treat a generator just like any other sequence if you only need to access its elements one at a time – for example, if you use it in a for loop:. vi to execute a system-level command line that can include any parameters supported by the application you want to launch. We can save the process output to a Python variable by calling check_output command like below. The models B+ and B2 are pin compatible with models A and B. /python on most machines (and what is used in all examples),. We will now see how to use variables along with literal constants. This tutorial shows you how to deploy a Python application into an OpenShift cluster on the cloud. That means, while loop tells the computer to do something as long as the condition is met. Then it gets a list of all files and folders in this directory using the os. Web Framework. Running Python Once you're inside the Python interpreter, type in commands at will. The OS module in python provides functions for interacting with the operating system. dev47+g996882b), a Python library designed to ease the use of the JIRA REST API. It includes all of the nidaqmx Python example programs, and the function definitions. 2009-Jul-03: A short example of calling Python functions from a windows script by writing a COM server in Python. This a basic example of pulling a waveform from channel 1, converting it to volts, then plotting it, in python. GPIO, is a Python module to control the GPIO interface on the Raspberry Pi. Introduction to Python for Computational Science and Engineering (A beginner’s guide) Hans Fangohr Faculty of Engineering and the Environment University of Southampton. OS, comes under Python’s standard utility modules. This is a super primative way to do things, and not recommended if you can avoid it. Let's say I have two versions of Python installed, like Python 3. That is where control structures come in. This lighthearted guide to the ten astonishments in version control history is a fun way to learn how systems developed over the past several decades. PyVISA: Control your instruments with Python¶ PyVISA is a Python package that enables you to control all kinds of measurement devices independently of the interface (e. • Assignment creates references, not copies • Names in Python do not have an intrinsic type. Functionality of an Excel workbook is controlled by a Python script placed in the same directory. Text to speech Pyttsx text to speech. Process Dynamics and Control in Python This course focuses on a complete start to finish process of physics-based modeling, data driven methods, and controller design. If you are looking for examples that work under Python 3, please refer to the PyMOTW-3 section of the site. Create your free Platform account to download our ready-to-use ActivePython or customize Python with any packages you require. If you try to stop a CPython program using Control-C, the interpreter throws a KeyboardInterrupt exception. If you need further help take a look at the API reference docs for more details. For example, it takes only a few lines of Python code to get the sentiment scores for reviews of products sold at an online retailer. You can even expand your Power BI reports further by bringing in sophisticated machine learning and AI. 0,and cast h to a float, otherwise I think this would produce incorrect results when your control constants, or sampling time are not 1. #Change 'COM5' to the Arduino COM port. raspberry-gpio-python A Python module to control the GPIO on a Raspberry Pi Examples Authors: Anonymous Blog @sourceforge Resources. Log in to Sample Exchange using your MyVMware credentials to submit requests for new samples, contribute your own samples, as well as propose a sample as a solution for open requests. In the other examples we were attemping to keep the pendulum vertical in response to an impulsive disturbance force applied to the cart. A list in Python is just an ordered collection of items which can be of any type. There are three control flow statements in Python - if, for and while. The Python programming examples also contains programs on Strings. In the local-only approach, all developers must use the same file system. Below are examples to get you started using the library. Should you require a time-sensitive answer, please contact your local Tektronix support center here. Now available for Python 3!. OS, comes under Python’s standard utility modules. The MicroPython pyboard is a compact electronic circuit board that runs MicroPython on the bare metal, giving you a low-level Python operating system that can be used to control all kinds of electronic projects. Teams in investment banks, hedge funds, and engineering organizations worldwide are using PyXLL to bring the full power of the Python ecosystem to their Excel end-users. Feel free to propose a chart or report a bug. Free open source full-stack framework for rapid development of fast, scalable, secure and portable database-driven web-based applications. Network engineers rely heavily on utilities that makes planning, provisioning and fact gathering easier. The python-control package is a set of python classes and functions that implement common operations for the analysis and design of feedback control systems. Posted in How to, Python examples Tagged How to send bytes to serial port in Python Control KMtronic USB Relay board example, KMtronic Relaisplatine Relaiskarte USB 4 Relay Board FTDI RS232 Serial controlled How to Send a GET Packet in Python | Control KMtronic WEB Relay board example. py # This can be done from Idle, Geany, or command line # Set Geany to use lxterminal. Log in to Sample Exchange using your MyVMware credentials to submit requests for new samples, contribute your own samples, as well as propose a sample as a solution for open requests. These are the basics — as time goes on I’ll share specific lessons I’ve learned from my projects. CONTROL STRUCTURES 1.